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Pergamum, also known as Pergamos, was called the greatest city in Asia Minor. Pergamon still remained a famous city and the noteworthy luxuries of Lucullus included imported wares from the city, which continued to be the site of a conventus (regional assembly). History: Pergamos, to which the ancient writers also gave the neuter form of the name, was a city of Mysia of the ancient Roman province of Asia, in the Caicus valley, 3 miles from the river, and about 15 miles from the sea. The sanctuary was old; its activity can be traced back to the fourth century BC. [23] But the Pergamenes made offerings to Telephus[24] and the grave of his mother Auge was located in Pergamon near the Caicus. Philetairos' design of the city was shaped above all by circumstantial considerations. Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. The foundations are still located in the Upper city, but the remains of the Pergamon frieze, which originally decorated it, are displayed in the Pergamon museum in Berlin, where the parts of the frieze taken to Germany have been installed in a partial reconstruction. It consisted of three terraces, with the main entrance at the southeast corner of the lowest terrace. It consisted of a courtyard surrounded by stoas and other structures, measuring roughly 36 x 74 metres. The construction mixed Ionic columns and Doric triglyphs (of which five triglyphs and metopes survive). It wasn’t on any trade route but was easily defendable. The marble temple sits on a podium, 4.5 metres above the level of the theatre terrace and was an Ionic prostyle temple. [29] Even so, he provided a further, deliberately crafted link to the world of Homeric epic. The apostle John wrote a letter to the Christians who lived in Pergamum. The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. In the area of the sanctuary, Attalos I and Eumenes II constructed victory monuments, most notably the Gallic dedications. Of all the seven cities, Pergamum was the one in which the church was most likely to clash with the ruling civil and religious … A PICTURE OF THE CITY (vv. The base of the altar measured around 36 x 33 metres and was decorated on the outside with a detailed depiction in high relief of the Gigantomachy, the battle between the Olympian gods and the Giants. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. In this place people with health problems could bathe in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asclepius would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. The kingdom of Pergamon was divided between Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia, with the bulk of its territory becoming the new Roman province of Asia. It was built on a hill that towered about 1000 feet above the plain. They also belonged to Antipas, a Roman businessman at the time. PERGAMOS; PERGAMUM. This Roman new city was able to expand without any city walls constraining it because of the absence of external threats. The name calling continues in the next message. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. The city was the first in the province to receive a second neocorate, from Trajan in AD 113/4. [88] His martyrdom is one of the first recorded in Christian history, highlighted by the Christian Scripture itself through the message sent to the Pergamon Church in the Book of Revelation. The city boasted a population of over 200,000 citizens. The members of the Pergamene aristocracy, especially Diodorus Pasparus in the 70s BC, used their own possessions to maintain good relationships with Rome, by acting as donors for the development of city. Pergamum was the capital of this region of the Roman Empire. The location of the library building is not certain. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133. On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused. Pergamus' role remained subordinate, although he did receive some cult worship. About 9.5 metres in front of the east-facing building, there was an altar, which was 7 metres long and 2.3 metres wide. Later in the same verse he refers to Pergamum as the place “where Satan dwells” (Rev. Generally, most of the Hellenistic houses at Pergamon were laid out with a small, centrally-located and roughly square courtyard, with rooms on one or two sides of it. The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria. [72] Only a few traces of the Hellenistic structure survive. Thus the size and arrangement of the rooms differed from house to house. The Lost Letters Of Pergamum Book Summary. The lowest and southernmost terrace is small and almost free of buildings. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. This is matched by the shape of the triglyphs, which usually consist of a sequence of two triglyphs and two metopes, but are instead composed of three of triglyphs and three metopes. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. The pipe consisted of three channels, which ended 3 km north of the citadel, before reaching the valley, and emptied into a pool, which included a double sedimentation tank. https://www.britannica.com/place/Pergamum, UNESCO World Heritage Convention - Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Pergamon, Turkey, Pergamum - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Sabine Müller, "Genealogie und Legitimation in den hellenistischen Reichen," in Hartwin Brandt, Katrin Köhler, Ulrike Siewert (ed. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. Credited with the invention of parchment, this once great seat of learning and culture had a library with over 20,000 volumes and a medical center - the remains of which can still be seen today.

Listed in the Bible as one of the Seven … [80] The middle terrace was around 250 metres long and 70 metres wide at the centre. The street included a drainage system, which carried the water down the slope. The Heroön – a shrine where the kings of Pergamon, particularly Attalus I and Eumenes II, were worshipped. As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. They built a library excelled only by that at Alexandria. The main rooms are often stacked in two levels on the north side of the courtyard. The climate is Mediterranean with a dry period from May to August, as is common along the west coast of Asia Minor. It is located 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern-day Bakırçay) and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey. Ruins of Pergamum, present-day Bergama, Turkey. Pergamos was situated about 100 miles north of Ephesus and boasted a population of around 250,000. [14] The two brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II displayed the most distinctive trait of the Attalids: a pronounced sense of family without rivalry or intrigue - rare amongst the Hellenistic dynasties. As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas.[9]. Pergamon reached the height of its influence during the Hellenistic period, becomin… Mithridates VI was celebrated in the city as a new Pergamus. Separate from this, a new area was laid out in Roman times, consisting of a whole new city west of the Selinus river, with all necessary infrastructure, including baths, theatres, stadiums, and sanctuaries. [74], The Library of Pergamon was the second largest in the ancient Greek world after the Library of Alexandria, containing at least 200,000 scrolls. He was followed by the architectural historian Wilhelm Dörpfeld from 1900 to 1911, who was responsible for the most important discoveries. Religiously, it was a center for pagan and emperor worship. For now, let’s open our Bibles to Revelation chapter 2. [64][65], In the New Testament Book of Revelation, the faith of the Pergamon believers, who "dwell where Satan’s throne is" is commended by the author. [75] Inscriptions in the gymnasium which mention a library might indicate, however, that the building was located in that area.[76][77]. 12-13a) The first picture we see is that of the city. 3. [60][61] Where the lay of the land prevented the laying of a street, small alleys were installed as connections instead. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. 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